24 February, 2017

My New Books Are Now Available

I'm delighted to announce that my next two books are now available for pre-order! Long Live the King: The Mysterious Fate of Edward II will be released on 1 June 2017 in both the UK and US. Here is the UK Amazon link, here is the US one. Ignore the customer reviews on Amazon.com; they're for a much older book with a similar title which have been wrongly attributed to my book - hope Amazon sort that out soon. The 'Look Inside' feature also doesn't work, and the author biography is, evidently, not me ("the American Agatha Christie"??). Long Live the King is also available from Book Depository, here.

My fourth book, a biography of Richard II (final title to be determined) will be released on 15 October 2017. Amazon UK link here, US link here, Book Depository here.

Other news: on Saturday 24 June 2017, I'm leading a study day called "King Edward II: The Man and the Mystery" at the Wuffing Education Study Centre at Sutton Hoo, Suffolk (site of one of the greatest ever archaeological finds in the UK). The programme is here; scroll down to see 'my' day. Click here to book a place; if you've never been to a study day at Sutton Hoo before, it's only £25. Hoping to see you!

Finally, the special 'medieval kings and queens' edition of BBC History Magazine is out now. If you're not in the UK and can't buy it in a local shop, you can order it here. I wrote the opinion piece, and there's also an article by me about Isabella of France. Pics below!






15 February, 2017

Juliana Leyburne and the Endless Hastings Confusion

Juliana Leyburne (1303/4 - c. 1 November 1367), an heiress in Kent, was countess of Huntingdon by her third marriage to William Clinton, a friend of Edward III and one of the men who arrested Roger Mortimer with the king at Nottingham Castle on 19 October 1330. She was the older half-sister of Thomas Beauchamp, earl of Warwick (b. 1314) and the stepdaughter of Piers Gaveston's nemesis Guy Beauchamp, earl of Warwick, and was also the stepdaughter of William la Zouche, lord of Ashby (who married Edward II's niece and Hugh Despenser the Younger's widow Eleanor de Clare in 1329). Juliana Leyburne was the mother of Laurence Hastings, earl of Pembroke (b. 1320) by her first marriage to John, Lord Hastings (1286-1325). Both Juliana and her mother Alice Toeni (or Tony or Tosni, etc), countess of Warwick, married three times, and they both inherited lands: Alice was the heir of her brother Robert Toeni who died in 1309, though in line with contemporary inheritance laws these lands did not pass to Alice's eldest child Juliana Leyburne on her death in 1324 but to her eldest son Thomas Beauchamp, earl of Warwick. Juliana had about seven or eight younger half-siblings from her mother's two subsequent marriages to Guy Beauchamp and William la Zouche, but was her father's only child, and Laurence Hastings was her only child from three marriages. She was the heir of her paternal grandparents William, Lord Leyburne and Juliane née de Sandwich, herself the heir of her father and uncle.

Thomas Leyburne was the elder son of William, Lord Leyburne and Juliane de Sandwich, and probably around 1300 or 1302 married Alice Toeni; she was born sometime between 1282 and 1285, according to the evidence of her brother Robert's Inq. Post Mortem in December 1309. [Cal. Inq. Post Mortem 1307-17, pp. 101-2] I don't know Thomas's date of birth, but he was probably a few years older than his wife, as his parents married in the mid-1260s.Thomas died shortly before 30 May 1307, in the lifetime of his father William, who outlived him by almost three years. His and Alice's only child Juliana Leyburne was said to be three years old or 'three years old and more' in Thomas's Inq. Post Mortem taken on 8 July and 17 September 1307, and 'aged six and more' in her grandfather William Leyburne's IPM in March/April 1310. She was also said to be '24 years and more' at the IPM of her grandmother Juliane taken in Kent on 30 January 1328. [CIPM 1300-7, pp. 274-5; CIPM 1307-17, pp. 121-3; CIPM 1327-36, 50-51] This would place her date of birth in the last few months of 1303 or the first quarter of 1304.

I haven't been able to find the date of Juliana Leyburne's wedding to John Hastings. He was the son and heir of John, Lord Hastings (1262-1313) and his first wife Isabella de Valence, half-niece of Henry III, and was the nephew and one of the three co-heirs of his maternal uncle Aymer de Valence, earl of Pembroke. (Aymer's other two heirs were his nieces the Comyn sisters, Joan and Elizabeth. See CIPM 1317-27, pp. 314-40. Amusingly, some of the jurors of Aymer's IPM in 1324 didn't know the women's names and just called them 'the two daughters of Sir John Comyn of Badenoch' or 'daughters of le Redecomyn', i.e. the Red Comyn.) Juliana Leyburne's husband John Hastings was also the stepson of Hugh Despenser the Younger's sister Isabella, who, born in c. 1290, was some years younger than he. This has caused, and continues to cause, considerable confusion among writers and researchers, who assume that Isabella Despenser married the younger John Hastings and was the mother of Laurence Hastings. She in fact married his widowed father John the elder, who was only a year younger than her own father Hugh Despenser the Elder (b. 1261), and her son Hugh Hastings was born in c. 1310 and was the decades-younger half-brother of John Hastings the younger. (If I felt like it, I could add to this endless confusion by pointing out that Isabella Despenser was firstly, albeit briefly and childlessly, married to Gilbert de Clare, lord of Thomond, a man often mixed up with his first cousin Gilbert de Clare, earl of Gloucester. But of course I wouldn't do that, hehehe.) According to his father's IPM in March 1313, the younger John Hastings was 'aged 26 on the day of St Michael last', i.e. he was born on or a bit before 29 September 1286. [CIPM 1307-17, pp. 230-6] He was thus a good seventeen years older than his wife Juliana Leyburne, and much closer in age to his stepmother Isabella Despenser.

John and Juliana's only son Laurence Hastings, later earl of Pembroke, was born either on 20, 21 or 25 March 1320 (either on the feast of St Cuthbert, the feast of St Benedict, or the feast of the Annunciation), and was five going on six years old at John Hastings' death on 6 January 1325. [CIPM 1317-27, pp. 385-93] Juliana Leyburne, born probably in the last months of 1303 or the early months of 1304, was sixteen when she gave birth to her son in March 1320. Official custody of the young Laurence Hastings and his lands was, probably inevitably, given to Edward II's powerful favourite and chamberlain Hugh Despenser the Younger, whose sister Isabella was Laurence's step-grandmother and the mother of Laurence's half-uncle Hugh Hastings, on 12 February 1325. [CPR 1324-7, p. 95] Hugh Despenser arranged a future marriage between Laurence and his third daughter Eleanor Despenser, though this never took place owing to his downfall in the autumn of 1326, and in 1329 when he was still only a child, Laurence Hastings married instead Roger Mortimer's daughter Agnes. [CPR 1324-7, p. 153] I have no idea where John and Juliana got the name Laurence from, but it's a refreshing change from all the Johns, Williams, Thomases, etc of the era.

Juliana Leyburne had married her second husband Sir Thomas Blount, steward of Edward II's household, by 23 September 1325, nine months after John Hastings' death. Edward II had given her permission to do so on 13 July, and made it clear that it was her own choice and she did not have to. [CIPM 1317-27, p. 393; CPR 1324-7, p. 153] Hugh Despenser the Younger may have had a hand in arranging or promoting this marriage, given that he was the royal chamberlain and Thomas the royal steward, and given that he was the official guardian of Juliana's son. Thomas Blount died shortly before 23 August 1328 when the escheator was ordered to take the lands of 'Thomas le Blount, deceased, tenant in chief' into the king's hand. (I've seen 17 August given as the date of his death but don't know what the source is.) A mere two months later, on 17 October 1328, Juliana was already married to her third husband Sir William Clinton when they were mentioned on the Patent Roll and William was called her 'present husband'. [CFR 1327-37, p. 102; CPR 1327-30, p. 325] The very short time between the death of Thomas Blount and Juliana's remarriage to William Clinton - it would have been conventional to wait a year, or at the very least six months - suggests that her second marriage had not been a happy one. As William was a younger son and not an heir, and in 1328 was merely a knight marrying the earl of Warwick's half-sister and the future earl of Pembroke's mother, Juliana's third union may have been a love-match. William's loyalty to Edward III and his participation in the arrest of Roger Mortimer in October 1330, however, led to him being granted the earldom of Huntingdon in 1337.

Meanwhile Juliana's paternal grandmother Juliane Leyburne née de Sandwich, widow of William who died in 1310, died shortly before 16 January 1328, when her lands were taken into the king's hand and a writ sent out for her IPM. Juliana the younger's then husband Thomas Blount did homage for his wife's new lands before 13 February 1328. [CIPM 1327-36, pp. 50-51; Cal Fine Rolls 1327-37, 75, 81] The next year, Juliana presumably attended the wedding of her nine-year-old son Laurence to Agnes, one of the eight daughters of Roger Mortimer and Joan Geneville, by then earl and countess of March. Her third husband was one of the men who arrested Roger in 1330. Laurence Hastings and Agnes Mortimer had only one child, Juliana's only grandchild: John Hastings, earl of Pembroke, born either on 24 June, 3 September or 8 September 1347 eighteen years after Agnes and John's wedding, though Laurence was only a child when they wed and so presumably was Agnes. [CIPM 1347-52, pp. 113-29] This John Hastings was the grandson of the John Hastings who died in 1325, and great-grandson of the John Hastings who died in 1313.

Laurence Hastings, earl of Pembroke, died at Abergavenny in Wales on 30 August 1348 at the age of only twenty-eight, and his mother Juliana outlived him by almost twenty years. [CIPM 1347-52, pp. 113-29] His one-year-old son John was his heir, though in fact John never came into his full inheritance as Marie de St Pol, dowager countess of Pembroke and the widow of Aymer de Valence (d. 1324), outlived him (she didn't die until May 1377) and held one-third of the Pembroke lands as her dower. Incidentally, the 'countess of Pembroke' named several times in the last household accounts of Edward II's widow Isabella of France in 1357/58 means Marie de St Pol, not Agnes Hastings née Mortimer, for all the tedious romanticising of one modern writer that Isabella and her dead lover's daughter became great friends. Likewise, the comes de la March named in Isabella's last accounts - he dined with her three times in 1357/58 - does not mean the English earl of March, Roger Mortimer (1328-60), grandson and heir of Isabella's supposed lover Roger Mortimer (executed 1330), but the French count of La Marche. He was Jacques de Bourbon and he was Isabella's second cousin, and he was one of the retinue of the captured King John II in England. There is no evidence that Isabella was in contact with any of Roger Mortimer's family in the last years of her life, despite the nonsense spouted by one modern writer that Isabella especially favoured her dead lover's grandson and was inseparable from one of his daughters.

John Hastings born in 1347 married for the first time when he was only twelve: his bride was Edward III and Philippa of Hainault's daughter Margaret, who was born in July 1346 and was a year his senior. John and Margaret married at Reading on 19 May 1359, the day before her brother John of Gaunt married Blanche of Lancaster. Sadly Margaret died young, sometime after 1 October 1361, and John was left a widower when he was barely into his teens. He married secondly Anne Manny (b. 1355), younger daughter and co-heir of Margaret of Norfolk, herself the heir of her father Thomas of Brotherton, earl of Norfolk, son of Edward I and half-brother of Edward II. Their only son John Hastings was born in October 1372 and was killed jousting aged seventeen in December 1389. The younger John married twice: firstly in the summer of 1380 to John of Gaunt and Blanche of Lancaster's second daughter Elizabeth, who was almost a decade his senior - this marriage was annulled in 1386 - and secondly to Philippa Mortimer, born in 1375, sister of Roger Mortimer, earl of March (1374-98) and second daughter of Edmund Mortimer, earl of March (1352-81). John Hastings the elder had died in 1375 when his son was a toddler; he had been imprisoned in harsh conditions in Castile, which killed him. None of the Hastings men after 1313 lived to see their sons grow up, and the childless death of the teenaged John Hastings in 1389 meant the end of the Hastings/Leyburne line.

William Clinton, earl of Huntingdon, stepfather of Laurence Hastings, earl of Pembroke and brother-in-law of Thomas Beauchamp, earl of Warwick, died on 25 August 1354, according to his IPM, and the writ ordering his lands to be taken into the king's hand was issued on 28 August. He left no legitimate children, and his heir was his older brother John's son John. [CIPM 1352-60, pp. 171-6; CFR 1347-56, 412] At the age of fifty, Juliana Leyburne was widowed for the third time. She died on 31 October or 1 November 1367, at the age of about sixty-three or sixty-four. [CIPM 1365-9, pp. 119-24] Her heir was her grandson John Hastings, earl of Pembroke.

07 February, 2017

7 February

On 7 February 1301, Edward of Caernarfon was made prince of Wales and earl of Chester by his father Edward I. He was sixteen years old, going on seventeen (born on 25 April 1284), and was the first heir to the English throne to be given the title of prince of Wales. There is no truth whatsoever to the often-repeated story that Edward I tricked the Welsh by promising them a prince who spoke no English, then presenting them with his newborn son; this story was invented in 1584, 300 years later. It makes no sense at all, given that a) Edward I's son Alfonso of Bayonne was still alive when Edward of Caernarfon was born and the king would hardly have given the principality to his baby son rather than his ten-year-old, and b) English was not the language of the English court anyway.

On 7 February 1308, Isabella of France arrived in England for the first time, having married Edward II at Boulogne thirteen days earlier. Isabella never met Edward I, who had died on 7 July 1307, was never princess of Wales, and certainly never met William Wallace, who had been executed two and a half years previously on 23 August 1305. She was just twelve years old, and would live in England for the remaining half a century of her life.

02 February, 2017

Exciting News: A Biography of Hugh Despenser the Younger

Today is the 735th anniversary of the birth of Maud Chaworth, who married Edward I's nephew Henry of Lancaster in or a little before 1297. Maud, born on 2 February 1282, was the mother of Duke Henry of Lancaster, grandmother of Blanche of Lancaster, great-grandmother of King Henry IV, and the grandmother/great-grandmother of half of the English nobility (or thereabouts) in the second half of the fourteenth century and into the fifteenth.

Maud was also the elder half-sister of Edward II's great favourite Hugh Despenser the Younger, lord of Glamorgan, and very excitingly I've been commissioned by Pen and Sword Books to write a biography of him. I've been obsessed with Hugh for a dozen years, so this is a really amazing opportunity for me. It's provisionally titled Valour and Vainglory: The Life of Hugh Despenser the Younger, tagline Loved by the King. Hated by the Queen, and will be out in September 2018. So yay!

I'm still unable to write a proper blog post owing to bereavement; hope to be back properly soon.

20 January, 2017

BBC History Magazine

BBC History Magazine will soon be publishing a special edition 'bookazine' about the medieval kings and queens of England. An article of mine about Isabella of France will be appearing, and I was also asked to write the opinion piece. Here's a sneak preview...


I'm not sure as yet when it will be out - more info here soon!

15 January, 2017

The Rebel Queen

Owing to bereavement I am unfortunately unable to write a blog post at the moment, but hope to resume normal service soon. In the meantime, my second book Isabella of France: The Rebel Queen is out in paperback in the UK today priced at £13.48, though is already out of stock on Amazon. Hope they get lots more copies soon! You can buy it from WH Smith for only £10.49, or from Waterstones. And my third book Long Live the King? The Mysterious Fate of Edward II is now with the publisher and will be out in some months; more info here as and when I have it. My Richard II biography will also be out in about autumn this year.

06 January, 2017

6 January 1367: Birth of Richard II

Today marks the 650th anniversary of the birth of King Richard II of England, who was the great-grandson of Edward II and who shared his fate of deposition.

Richard was the second son of Edward of Woodstock, prince of Wales and Aquitaine, duke of Cornwall and earl of Chester, eldest of the five sons of Edward III, and Joan of Kent, countess of Kent in her own right. Edward of Woodstock had been appointed prince of Aquitaine in 1362, and so Richard was born there, in the important city of Bordeaux. His birthday of 6 January is Epiphany or Twelfth Night or the feast of the Three Kings, and rather remarkably three kings are said to have attended his baptism in Bordeaux several days after his birth. I discuss the kings' identities in my forthcoming (and as yet untitled) biography of Richard. Also present in Bordeaux in January 1367 was the chronicler Jean Froissart, who was to meet Richard again in England twenty-eight years later.

Richard of Bordeaux - as he is often called - was born third in line to the English throne behind his father and his elder brother Edward of Angoulême, who was not quite two years old at the time, born on 27 January 1365 also in Aquitaine. Richard's paternal grandfather Edward III had been king of England for almost exactly forty years at the time of Richard's birth, and his paternal grandmother Queen Philippa was also still alive. As I pointed out in a recent post, Richard's ancestry was confusingly tangled and inter-related; he was both the great-grandson and great-great-grandson of Edward I of England, both the great-great-grandson and the great-great-great-grandson of Philip III of France, and so on. By 1367 the name Richard had become unusual in the English royal family, and the last royal to bear the name was King John's younger son and Henry III's brother Richard of Cornwall, who presumably was named after his uncle King Richard Lionheart and who died in 1272. Richard of Bordeaux spent the first four years of his life in France, and travelled to England with his parents in early 1371, leaving behind the body of his recently deceased brother Edward of Angoulême. Richard had Edward's body transported to England in the early 1390s and reburied at Langley Priory, founded by their great-grandfather Edward II in 1308.

Richard's father died in June 1376 and the ten-year-old boy succeeded his grandfather as king of England a year later. Shortly after he turned fifteen in January 1382, he married his beloved Anne of Bohemia, who was born in May 1366 and was the daughter of the great Holy Roman Emperor Charles IV from his fourth marriage to the Polish noblewoman Elizabeth of Pomerania, daughter of the duke of Pomerania and granddaughter of Kazimierz III Wielki, Casimir III the Great, king of Poland. Anne was born in Prague, and so from January 1382 until Anne's premature death in June 1394, the king and queen of England were born in Bordeaux and Prague respectively. Richard's much younger second queen Isabelle of France, whom he married in early November 1396 just before her seventh birthday, was born in the Louvre in Paris, now a world-famous museum but then a twelfth-century fortification transformed into a royal palace by Isabelle's grandfather Charles V. Richard II himself was deposed by his cousin Henry IV and murdered in early 1400 some weeks after he turned thirty-three, Anne of Bohemia died at twenty-eight, and Isabelle of France died at not yet twenty shortly after giving birth to her only child Jeanne, duchess of Alençon (who herself died childless in her early twenties and whose father was Isabelle's first cousin Charles of Orléans). I wish all of them had enjoyed happier fates.

22 December, 2016

Merry Christmas 2016, And Some Books

A very merry Christmas to all our readers from Kathryn Warner and Edward II!



If you fancy some reading set in Edward II's time over Christmas, I recommend Martin White's To Catch the Conscience of the King, which deals with Edward's captivity in 1327 and his afterlife, and the excellent historical novels of Anna Belfrage, whose main character serves Roger Mortimer and is a witness to Edward's reign and its aftermath.

My book Long Live the King? The Mysterious Fate of Edward II will be out in a few months, and I'm also writing a bio of Hugh Despenser the Younger, lord of Glamorgan, for Pen and Sword Books. It'll be out in 2018. It'll be followed by biographies of Edward II's nieces the de Clare sisters, Philippa of Hainault, and John of Gaunt, oh, and Richard II will be out next year too; 2017 is the 650th anniversary of Richard's birth in 1367. Happy reading! :-)

15 December, 2016

Even Even More Cool Names!

Continuing an occasional Christmas series of great people's names from the late thirteenth and fourteenth centuries; see also here, here, here and here. The ones in this post are all taken from documents of Edward I's reign, from around the late 1280s to the beginning of the 1300s, and yes, they're all genuine names of people living in England at this time.

Adam Halfape

Benevenue de Artaud (a woman; her first name means 'Welcome' in French)

Maud Daft

Maud Lusshefissh

Bertram de Magna Moeles

Erneberga de Hardreshull

Marcelina Belost

Godeleva Dobel

Freduchius Hubertini

Emelina Inkepenne

Amiens de Fonte

Reginald le Chien (means 'the Dog' in French)

German Hay

Cecily de Pysinges

Joceus de Camera

Basilia Reynaud

Gaceus de Calvo Monte

Gilbert Rote Ofserewe

Leonius de Steyne

Sigreda Avenel

Hugh le Hoppere

Strangia Daungevyn

Sir Anger de Baslada

Alger Iwyn

Boruncinus Galteri

Saer Bataylle

Silvester Doygnel

Sanxius Petri

Peregrine de Farges

Flemilda de Pursford

Boudekeu de Contek

Dionisia Hubaud

Aunger de Chaucomb

Jolan son of Jolan

Palmer Grond

Nicholas Brusebon

Gilbert de Burnolfisheved

John Non

Floria de Cantilupe

Avicia de Cokefend

Eudo Dragun

Falcasius de Lindeley

Edmunda la Botiller

Amatrix wife of Richard le Venur

Coppus Cottene

Walkelin Kibus

Lapus Bonichi

Ketel de Pardyeshou

Acelina de Viridario

Haldanus de Sutton

Felomena de Kersewell

Saburga de Wakeringe

Bartholomew de Labilio

Comitissa Clifford

Simon Mustard

John Littelfat

Bonefeyus de Crickelade

Karenillus le Parker

Wichard Ledet

Ferrand de Mannia

Tassius de Neubaut

Burnettus Bonrucinus

Flora Mauveysin (her last name means 'bad neighbour' in French)

Sapiencia Mody (her first name means 'wisdom' in Latin)

Juetta Short

Trahern ap Howell ap Rees

Dominicus de Morlanis

Brunus de Monte Revelli

Tottus de Monte Claro

Sir Serlo de Nausladron

Menaldus de Rybere

Franco de Scolond

Gracia de Savenayk

Terricus de la Bruere

Innocencia Oky

07 December, 2016

More Fourteenth-Century Proofs of Age

Continuing an occasional series which answers the question 'How did people know their date of birth more than five hundred years before the invention of birth certificates and more than two hundred before parish records of baptisms began to be kept?' How did people remember dates? See also here, here and here.

1) Proof of age of Bartholomew son and heir of John Davelers, Suffolk, 'Friday before St Mark, 2 Edw. II' (i.e. 18 April 1309)

Sir William Visdelou, knight, age 40 and more, says that the said Bartholomew is 21 and more, and was born at Everwartone on Thursday after St Matthew, 15 Edward I [25 September 1287], which he knows because on that Thursday he made a feast at Schottele, and on the same day caused a tombstone to be placed over the body of Guy his father in the church of the same town.

Robert le Vyte, age 66, says as above, and knows it because on that Friday he came to the hall of Everwarton for 14 shillings due to him for a cloth of russet, and found the lady lying in childbed.

William de Bromptone, age 40 and more, says the same, and knows it because he was then butler there, and on that Friday he announced to Sir Robert Schelt that the lady had borne a child, who gave him two shillings and a gold ring.

Richard le Warde, age 55, says as above, and knows it because on that Friday he was repairing the house of Roger le Priur at Everwarton, and fell and broke his right leg.

John Hervi, age 68, says as above, and knows it because he came to the church of Everwarton and caused a celebration to be made for the soul of his father, and he saw the said Bartholomew lying there wrapped in a silken cloth.

John le Juvene, 72, says as above, and knows it because Sir Bartholomew Davelers, grandfather of the said Bartholomew, died in the same town on the Sunday after the said Bartholomew was baptised, and on the same day he himself had a son born called William, who is now 21 and more.

2) John son and heir of Walter de Sourdeval, Yorkshire, 4 June 1309

William de Appelton, aged 50, says that the said John was 21 on the feast of the Purification last [2 February], for he was born at Bothlum on that day and baptised in the church there on the morrow, 21 years ago, and this he knows because he has a son Richard, born on the octave of the Purification 21 years ago.

John de Appelton, aged 60, says the same, and knows it because Alice late his wife was churched of a daughter on the morrow of the said John's birth, who died at the feast of the Annunciation last and was then 21 years and 10 weeks old.

John de Middelton, aged 54, says the same, and knows it because on Christmas Day last 21 years ago, going home from the church, he fell and broke his arm, and the said John was born on the feast of the Purification next following.

William de Wath, aged 48, says the same, and knows it because Richard his brother abjured the realm on account of the death of Robert de [...]ath, whom he slew on Monday [missing] 21 years ago, and the said John was born on the feast of the Purification next before.

3) Elizabeth, younger daughter and co-heir of Brian Brampton, Herefordshire, Wednesday the morrow of St Martin, 3 Edw. II [12 November 1309]

John de Midelton. aged 45, says that the said Elizabeth was born at Ayston and baptised in the church there, and was 14 on Wednesday after St Nicholas last, and this he knows because he is her godfather and lifted her from the font.

Hugh de Careswell, aged 50, says the same, and knows it because on the same day he married his wife, and saw the said Elizabeth being baptised at the door of the church.

Adam Osberne, aged 60, agrees, and knows it because when building a chamber in his place near the manor of the said Brian [Brampton], he heard the said Elizabeth wailing.

William de Fraxino, aged 50, says the same, and knows it because he then was of the household of the said Brian, and on the said Wednesday saw the said Elizabeth lying in her cradle in her nurse's chamber.

4) John son and heir of Sir Hubert de Multon, Cumberland, Monday the morrow of the Nativity of the Blessed Virgin Mary, 8 Edw. II [9 September 1314]

Sir John de Lamplow, age 40 and more, says that the said John was born in the manor of Ishal, and baptised in the church of St Michael there, and was 21 on the feast of St Bartholomew last [24 August 1314]; which he well recollects as Robert his elder brother, whose heir he is, died on the morrow of the Assumption, 21 Edw. I [16 August 1293], and the said John was born on the feast of St Bartholomew next following.

Robert de Mulcastre says the like, and knows it because on the morrow of St Laurence in  that year [11 August 1293] he married Petronilla, daughter of Sir Robert de Pavelly, and the said John was born on the feast of St Bartholomew following.

Henry de Brumfeld says the like, and recollects it because in the same year on Sunday before the Ascension, the city of Carlisle with the great church was burned.

Alan de Arkelby says the like, and knows it because he returned from his pilgrimage to Santiago on the same day of St Bartholomew, 21 Edw. I, when the said John's birth was announced.

5) Edmund son and heir of Roger Coleville, Lincolnshire, 14 February 1309

Thomas de Sancto Laudo, knight, says that the said Edmund is son and next heir of the said Roger, and was born at Castelbitham at the feast of the Conversion of St Paul, 16 Edw. I [25 January 1288], and baptised in the church of St James there. Robert Coleville and William de Bergh lifted him from the sacred font and named him Edmund in dedication to St Edmund of Pontigny, because his father travelling there vowed to name his son Edmund.

William de Hellewelle, age 50, says the same, and knows it because Robert his son was age 3 on the day that the said Edmund was born.

John Broun of Castelbitham, age 50, says the same, and knows it because he announced the birth to Sir Richard de Brewosa and Lady Alice his wife, grandparents of the said Edmund, for which they gave him jewels to the value of 100 shillings.

6) Alice Coterel, daughter and heir of William Kendale, Derbyshire, 26 November 1309

Richard Danyel, knight, age 60, says that the said Alice was 15 on the feast of the Translation of St Thomas the Martyr last [7 July], and was born at Derleye on that day 15 years ago and baptised in the church there on the morrow, which he knows because he had a son Robert who was born at the feast of the Nativity of the Blessed Mary next after the birth of the said Alice, and died at the feast of St Michael last [29 September], aged 15 and more.

Nicholas Kyng, age 40, says the same, and knows it because William Kendale held seisin at Haddon of lands which were of Robert de Derleye on the same day that the said Alice was born, and had magnates feasting with him.

John Birchelis, age 54, says the same, and knows it because he had a sister Agnes married on the same day.