22 June, 2007

Iberian Kings of the Thirteenth and Fourteenth Centuries...

...or, Lots Of Men Called Alfonso, with Afonso as an exciting variation. ;)

To help with the post above this one, on Edward II's betrothals, here's a list of the Iberian kings of his era, with their relations to each other and to Edward II.

The dates are the kings' reigns, not their lifetimes. There's a map of the Iberian peninsula circa 1360 at the end of the post.

Kings of Castile and León

- Fernando III, 1230-1252 [grandfather of Edward II]. Married to Elisabeth of Swabia and Jeanne de Dammartin.

- Fernando's son Alfonso X, 1252-1284 [uncle of Edward II]. Married to Violante of Aragón, daughter of Jaime I.

- Alfonso's son Sancho IV, 1284-1295 [first cousin of Edward II]. Married to María de Molina, first cousin once removed of Edward II.

- Sancho's son Fernando IV, 1295-1312. Married to Constança of Portugal, daughter of King Diniz.

- Fernando's son Alfonso XI, 1312-1350. Betrothed to Edward II's daughter Eleanor of Woodstock; married his first cousin Maria of Portugal, daughter of Afonso IV.

- Alfonso's son Pedro the Cruel, 1350-1369. Betrothed to Edward II's granddaughter Joan of the Tower, who died of plague at Bayonne in September 1348, on her way to marry Pedro. Married Blanca of Bourbon, then his mistress María de Padilla.

Pedro and María de Padilla's daughters Constanza and Isabella married Edward II's grandsons John of Gaunt and Edmund of Langley in 1371 and 1372. Gaunt unsuccessfully claimed the throne of Castile; his daughter Catalina married his rival Enrique III in 1393.

Kings of Aragón

- Jaime I, 1213-1276. Married to Yolanda of Hungary.

- Jaime's son Pedro III, 1276-1285. Married to Constanza of Sicily.

- Pedro's son Alfonso III, 1285-1291. Betrothed to Edward II's sister Eleanor, died unmarried.

- Alfonso's brother Jaime II, 1291-1327. Married to Isabel of Castile (daughter of Sancho IV) and Blanche of Anjou.

- Jaime's son Alfonso IV, 1327-1336. Married firstly to Teresa d'Entença, then to Leonor of Castile, daughter of Fernando IV. His heir Pedro IV was the son of Teresa. In 1325/26, Leonor had been betrothed to Edward II's son, the future Edward III.

Kings of Portugal

- Diniz, 1279-1325. His mother Beatriz was an illegitimate daughter of Alfonso X of Castile, so Diniz was a first cousin once removed of Edward II. Married Isabel of Aragón, daughter of Pedro III.

- Diniz's son Afonso IV, 1325-1357. Married Beatriz of Castile, daughter of Sancho IV. In 1326, Afonso wrote to Edward II, putting forward his daughter Maria as a bride for the future Edward III. [She married Alfonso XI of Castile.]

- Afonso's son Pedro I, 1357-67. Married firstly Blanca of Castile, granddaughter of Sancho IV of Castile and of Jaime II of Aragón. His children were all by his second and third wives, and mistresses.

- João I, 1385-1433. Pedro's son by his Galician mistress Teresa Gille Lourenço. On 11 February 1387, João married Edward II's great-granddaughter Philippa of Lancaster (John of Gaunt's daughter).

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