29 October, 2014

The Unconventional King Blog Tour

I'm going on a blog tour this week to promote Edward II: The Unconventional King!  I'll update this list with links when each guest post appears.

28 October: A general introduction to Edward II, his reign and his ancestry at Christy K. Robinson's Rooting for Ancestors blog.

29 October: A post about Edward II and his children at Medievalists.net.

30 October: Edward and the Despensers at Susan Higginbotham's blog.

31 October: An interview with Gareth Russell on his blog.  (And thanks to Gareth for the great book review!)

1 November: Edward II and Piers Gaveston at Anerje's Piers blog.

2 November: Edward II and his household at Annette's Impressions in Ink.

3 November: Edward II and his rustic pursuits at Becky's The Medieval World.

4 November: An interview and book giveaway with Olga at Nerdalicious.

5 November: Edward's twelfth-century ancestry at Kasia's Henry the Young King blog.

Happy reading!  :-)

26 October, 2014

Bizarrely Tangled Families

For your amusement, here are some examples of weirdly inter-related noble families in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries.

The de Clare siblings' half-nephew marries their half-sister

Gilbert 'the Red' de Clare, earl of Gloucester (1243-1295), and his second wife Joan of Acre (1272-1307) had four children, Gilbert, Eleanor, Margaret and Elizabeth, born between 1291 and 1295 and the nephew and nieces of Edward II.  Gilbert the Red also had two daughters with his first wife Alice de Lusignan, Isabella (born 1262) and Joan (born c. 1264).  Joan de Clare was the mother of Duncan MacDuff, earl of Fife, who was born in late 1289: he was the half-nephew of Gilbert, Eleanor, Margaret and Elizabeth de Clare, albeit some years their senior.

Sometime after 1307, Duncan MacDuff married Mary de Monthermer, who was born in 1297, and their only child Isabella was born in about 1320.  And who was Mary?  Daughter of Joan of Acre and her second husband Ralph de Monthermer, and thus the younger half-sister of Gilbert, Eleanor, Margaret and Elizabeth de Clare.  And so, the half-nephew of the de Clare siblings married their half-sister; the grandson of their father's first marriage married the daughter of their mother's second marriage.

The earl of Derby's daughter becomes the stepmother of her own stepmother

William Ferrers, earl of Derby (1193-1254), married Sybil Marshal, one of the five daughters of the great William Marshal, earl of Pembroke (d. 1219) and Isabella de Clare.  William and Sybil had seven daughters.  After Sybil's death, William married his second wife Margaret de Quincy, daughter of Roger de Quincy, earl of Winchester.  With her, he had his heir Robert, earl of Derby, born in about 1239, a younger son and three more daughters.

Eleanor Ferrers, sixth or seventh of the seven daughters of William and his first wife Sybil Marshal, married Roger de Quincy, earl of Winchester - the same Roger whose daughter Margaret married Eleanor's father William Ferrers.  Eleanor thus became the stepmother of her stepmother.  For William Ferrers' five younger children, this meant that their half-sister married their grandfather.  It's probably just as well that Eleanor Ferrers and Roger de Quincy had no children, or the universe would have exploded.

Roger Mortimer's grandmother marries her step-grandmother's son (thanks to Ann Marie Thomas on Twitter for this one)

The paternal grandmother of Roger Mortimer, first earl of March (1287-1330) was Maud de Braose (c. 1224/28-1301).  Maud's mother Eva was a daughter of William Marshal, so that Maud was a first cousin of the seven Ferrers sisters, above; her father William was hanged by Llywelyn ap Iorwerth, prince of Gwynedd, in 1230 after being found in the bedroom of Llywelyn's wife Joan (King John's illegitimate daughter).  William de Braose was the son of Reginald de Braose (d. 1228) and his first wife Grecia Briwere.  Reginald, the grandfather of Maud de Braose, married secondly Gwladus Ddu (d. 1251), daughter of Llywelyn ap Iorwerth who hanged Reginald's son William.

After Reginald de Braose's death, Gwladus Ddu married secondly Ralph Mortimer, and was the mother of Roger Mortimer (d. 1282) who married Maud de Braose and was the grandfather of Roger Mortimer, first earl of March.  Gwladus Ddu was thus both Maud's mother-in-law and step-grandmother.  It is uncertain whether Gwladus was the daughter of King John's illegitimate daughter Joan or of Llywelyn's mistress Tangwystl, but if the former, it means William de Braose had an affair with the mother of his stepmother, and if the latter, that he had an affair with the stepmother of his stepmother.  For Maud, it meant that Llywelyn, the man who had hanged her father, was her grandfather-in-law.

Isabella of France's grandmother is her husband Edward II's aunt by marriage

Blanche of Artois (c. 1248-1302) was the niece of Louis IX of France, and married firstly Enrique I, king of Navarre, with whom she had a daughter Jeanne or Joan, queen of Navarre in her own right, who married Philip IV of France.  Joan of Navarre and Philip IV were the parents of Isabella of France, Blanche's granddaughter.  Blanche married secondly Edmund of Lancaster, Edward I's younger brother, and was thus the aunt by marriage of Isabella's husband Edward II.

24 October, 2014

The Earl of Norfolk Tries to Steal his Stepson's Lands

A post about an incident which I first discovered in Marc Morris's excellent and scholarly book The Bigod Earls of Norfolk in the Thirteenth Century (Boydell and Brewer, 2005), pp. 124-5.

Roger Bigod, who was born in about 1245 and died in 1306, was the last in the line of Bigod earls of Norfolk dating back to about a century before his birth.  He succeeded his childless uncle, also Roger, as earl in 1270, and around the same time, married a woman called Aline Basset.  She was the only child and heiress of Sir Philip Basset, a landowner in the the Midlands and south of England, and had previously been married to Hugh Despenser, justiciar of England.  Hugh was a staunch supporter of Simon de Montfort, earl of Leicester, against Henry III and his son the future Edward I, and was killed with Simon at the battle of Evesham in 1265.  Aline's son Hugh Despenser would become earl of Winchester in 1322 and is the man known to history as Hugh Despenser the Elder, father of Edward II's notorious favourite Hugh Despenser the Younger.  (I tend to refer to Justiciar Hugh as Hugh Despenser the Even Elder.)  Hugh 'the Elder' was only four years old when his father was killed at Evesham.  It's interesting to note that his mother continued to use her first husband's name and was always known as 'Aline la Despensere' throughout her second marriage, even though Roger Bigod was of higher rank than Hugh.

Although Aline Basset Despenser had a son and at least one daughter with her first husband, she and Roger had no children.  Aline died shortly before 11 April 1281, when her seventeen manors were taken into the king's hand (Fine Rolls 1272-1307, p. 146).  Her heir was her only son Hugh, then aged twenty (born 1 March 1261).  Roger Bigod had enjoyed the income from his wife's lands during their marriage, and the loss of them was a big blow, especially as he had large debts.  Dishonestly, he decided to try to make use of a custom called 'the courtesy of England', whereby the widower of a woman who had held lands in her own right could make use of them for the rest of his life, as long as the couple had had at least one child together.  In short, this meant that Aline's lands would not pass to her son Hugh but would remain under Roger's control as long as he lived, and he ended up outliving Aline by a quarter of a century.  Under the 'courtesy of England', the child didn't have to be living, just had to have been born.  Roger therefore claimed that Aline had borne him a child at Woking, who died shortly afterwards.

Knowing this to be untrue, Hugh Despenser took his stepfather to court.  A jury was appointed to decide if the child had been male or female, where it had been born, whether it had been baptised, if it had given voice before death, and so on.  Faced with the prospect of having to lie through his teeth and invent numerous details, and without a shred of evidence to show that a child had ever existed, Roger was soon forced to drop his claim.  Edward I granted the marriage of Hugh Despenser 'the Elder' to William Beauchamp, earl of Warwick, on 28 May 1281, and on the same day Hugh was allowed to take control of his inheritance despite still being a few months under age (Patent Rolls 1272-81, p. 439; Close Rolls 1279-88, p. 88; Fine Rolls 1272-1307, p. 149).  Probably in 1286, Hugh married the earl of Warwick's daughter Isabel, widow of Patrick Chaworth, and they had six children: Aline, Hugh the Younger, Isabel, Philip, Margaret and Elizabeth.

Roger Bigod, presumably, was infertile; he had no children with either Aline Basset or his second wife Alicia, sister of Count William III of Hainault and Holland and aunt of Edward III's queen Philippa.  He died in 1306, having made arrangements with Edward I about his earldom, which passed to the king's son Thomas of Brotherton: Edward II bestowed the earldom of Norfolk on his half-brother in December 1312 when Thomas was twelve, shortly after the birth of the future Edward III had displaced him as heir to the throne.  The earldom, later dukedom, of Norfolk passed to Thomas's daughter Margaret and thence to her descendants the Mowbrays (her elder daughter and co-heiress Elizabeth Segrave married John, Lord Mowbray).

19 October, 2014

Proofs of Age, Or, I Know How Old You Are Because I Saw Queen Isabella Lift You From The Font

I love fourteenth-century proofs of age (see here and here for my previous posts on them).  They're so revealing of people's lives and how they remembered things.  Here are some more, from Calendar of Inquisitions Post Mortem 1327-1336.  Each proof of age required the testimony of twelve jurors, all male, though I've only included the more interesting entries.  The first three are of particular interest to me, given the people involved: two of the de Verdon sisters and John, Lord Mowbray.

1) Stafford, 1 March 1327: Proof of age of Margery de Verdon, who was: third of the four daughters and co-heiresses of the justiciar of Ireland Theobald de Verdon (1278-1316); stepdaughter of Edward II's niece Elizabeth de Burgh née de Clare; and niece of Roger Mortimer, first earl of March (Margery's mother was Roger's sister Maud).  Edward II's 'favourite' Sir Roger Damory, who married Margery's stepmother Elizabeth de Burgh in 1317, bought the rights to Margery and her half-sister Isabella's (Elizabeth de Burgh's daughter and thus Damory's stepdaughter) marriages in March 1318 for £200, and sold them to Thomas, earl of Lancaster's adherent Sir Robert Holland that November (Patent Rolls 1317-21, pp. 125, 237).  By 1327 when her proof of age was taken, Margery was married to William le Blount, a Lancastrian knight and one of Henry, earl of Lancaster's attorneys.  Her elder sisters were Joan, born 1303, who married firstly John Montacute and secondly Thomas Furnival, and Elizabeth, born c. 1306, who married Bartholomew Burghersh, maternal nephew of Bartholomew Badlesmere who suffered the traitor's death on the orders of Edward II in 1322.

John de Hodinet, aged 54 years, says that the said Margery was 16 years of age at the feast of St Laurence past, for she was born at Alveton [Alton, Staffordshire] on that day, 4 Edward II [10 August 1310] and baptised in the church there on the same day; and this he knows because he was there with the said Theobald [de Verdon, Margery's father] and announced the birth to him.

Henry de Athelaxton, aged 44 years, says the like, and knows it because he was at Croxdene by Alveton and heard how John de Hodinet announced the birth.

Richard de Farlegh, aged 50 years, says the like, and knows it because he buried William his first-born son on the same feast of St Laurence.

Richard de Dolverne, aged 47 years, says the like, and knows it because he hunted with the said Theobald at Wotton by Alveton and shot a buck on the same feast of St Laurence.

Peter de Daddesleye, aged 57 years, says the like, and knows it because he was with the said Theobald in Ireland at the feast of the Decollation of St John the Baptist [29 August] next following the said feast of St Laurence.

2) Wiltshire, 20 February 1332 [it states 5 Edward III which would be February 1331, but this seems to be an error]: Proof of age of Margery de Verdon's half-sister Isabella, posthumous daughter of Theobald and his second wife Elizabeth de Burgh.  In 1332 Isabella was already married to Henry, Lord Ferrers of Groby, and despite her youth had borne a child in about February 1331, who unsurprisingly died young.  Unlike her three older Verdon half-sisters, Isabella was the great-niece of Edward II, who sent a gift of a silver cup on hearing of her birth.  She was also the goddaughter of Queen Isabella and named after her.  When the inquisition was taken, Isabella de Verdon was a ward of the (then dowager) queen, and the writ to the escheator ordered him to inform the queen so that her bailiff could be present.

John de Duyn, knight, aged 60 years, says that the said Isabel was 14 years of age at the feast of St Benet last past, for she was born at Aunbresbury [Amesbury, Wiltshire] on that day, 10 Edward II [21 March 1317], and baptised in the church there; at that time he was staying in his manor of Tudeworth, four leagues from Aunbresbury, and saw Queen Isabella come from the manor of Clarendon to lift the said Isabel from the font, and he was present.

Henry Borry, aged 50 years and more, says the like, and he saw Roger [Martival], then bishop of Salisbury, come from his manor of Wodeford to baptise the same Isabel, and he came in the company of the said bishop, whose servant he was.

John de Harnham, aged 46 years, says the like, and knows it because at the time of her birth he was sub-sheriff of Wilts and was assigned to conduct Queen Isabella from Clarendon to Aunbresbury, as aforesaid.

Richard de Wycombe, aged 47 years, says the like, and knows it because when Elizabeth de Burgh, mother of the said Isabel, lay in childbed, King Edward the king's father [i.e. Edward II] came from his manor of Clarendon to the said Elizabeth [words missing] between the same Elizabeth and Roger Damory.*

* This is Edward II putting pressure on his niece, in the middle of giving birth to her late husband's child, to marry his current favourite.  He'd written to try to persuade her to marry Roger Damory even before Theobald de Verdon's funeral, and in the letter called her his favourite niece in a transparent attempt to get her to do he wanted, which was a bare-faced lie.  Nice work, Edward!  Lie to your niece and harass her in writing and in person when she was most vulnerable.  Spectacular.  Elizabeth gave in, and married Roger a few weeks later; she really had no other choice.  She had retired to Amesbury Priory during her pregnancy, presumably to try to find a bit of peace and to spend time with her aunt Mary, Edward II's sister, who was a nun there and with whom Elizabeth seems to have had a close and affectionate relationship.

3) York, 31 July 1329: Proof of age of John, son of John, Lord Mowbray, executed by Edward II in York on 23 March 1322 after he took part in the Contrariant rebellion.  I like the younger John (who married Henry of Lancaster's daughter Joan in 1327).  On 30 April 1326, an entry on the Close Roll declares that John, who was only fifteen at the time, had besieged and captured Tickhill Castle in Staffordshire "and perpetrated other felonies and misdeeds" in the company of the brother of Roger, Lord Clifford, also executed as a Contrariant in 1322.  This was probably because the constable of Tickhill was William Aune, a friend and ally of Edward II, and John Mowbray and Robert Clifford were trying to make trouble for the king in any way they could.

William de Sproxton, aged 50 years, says that the said John was born at Hovyngham [Hovingham, North Yorkshire] on the eve of St Andrew, 4 Edward II [29 November 1310], and baptised in the church of All Saints there [here!], and was 18 years of age on the eve of St Andrew last past, which he knows because on the same day as the said John was born, he dined in the hall with the servants of the house of Hovyngham.

Ralph de Kirketon, aged 53 years, says the like, and knows it because he was at Hovyngham with Sir John de Moubray, deceased, father of the said John; which John the father had an illness at Hovyngham when the said John was born, on account of which Alina [de Braose] his mother was delivered of the said John five days ahead of her time.

John Dounyour, aged 38 years, says the like, and knows it because at the same time as the said John was born he was in the schools of Hovyngham.

Thomas de Colton, aged 40 years, says the like, and knows it because in the same week as the said John was born he had a brother named William drowned by accident.

William Stibbyng, aged 43 years, says the like, and knows it because in the same month as the said John was born, as he rode towards Maltone next Hovyngham, his horse fell and he broke his left shin bone.

Robert Scot, aged 54 years, says the like, and knows it because immediately after the said John's birth he hastened to [Thomas] the earl of Lancaster, deceased, and brought him the news of the said John's birth, for which the said earl gave him 20 shillings.

4) Dorset, 18 April 1327: Proof of age of Roger son of John de Husey, kinsman and heir of John de Berewyk, deceased.

The said Roger was 21 years of age on the feast of the Translation of St Thomas [Becket] the Martyr, for he was born at Mortone on the said feast, 33 Edward I [7 July 1305], and on the same day was baptised in the church of St Martin there by Robert, rector of the church, his godfather, who still survives and bears witness to his age.

John Peverel, aged fifty years, knows it because he married Isabel his wife about the feast of the Nativity of St John the Baptist [24 June] in the same year that the said Roger was born, and they were at the feast made for the purification of Maud mother of the said Roger rising from childbed of the same.

Henry Touere, aged 70 years, knows it because John his son was born on the feast of St Peter ad Vincula [1 August] in the same year, and will be 22 years of age on the same day this year.

John le Moygne, aged 60 years, knows it because John le Moygne his father died on the same feast of the Translation of St Thomas.

William Whyteclyve, aged 70 years, knows it because he was steward of the house of the said John Husey at the time the said Roger was born, and by the date of the rolls of expenses made on the day of the purification of Maud mother of the said Roger, and by other evidences he well remembers the date.

5) Devon, 8 September 1328: Proof of age of William, son and heir of Nicholas de Cheigny.

Philip de Cranlysworthy, aged 48 years and more, says that the said William was 22 years of age on the feast of the Assumption last [15 August], and this he knows because the said William was born at Upotery [Upottery], and baptised in the church there on the morrow by Robert, vicar of the said church, 1 Edward II [1307].  Asked how he remembers, he says that he was at that time beyond the sea at Montpellier, and on the morrow of the said Assumption he returned home to Upotery.

Robert de Greneweie, aged 60 years, agrees, and recollects it because he had a son named John, who was ordained chaplain at Exeter on Sunday next before the said feast, 1 Edward II.

Robert de Okebeare, aged 60 years, William de Batteshorne, aged 50 years and more, John Fisshacre, aged 60 years, William Beffyn, aged 60 years, Roger Caperoun, aged 50 years, and John Mone, aged 60 years, say the like, and recollect it because at Michaelmas [29 September] next after the feast of the Assumption, 1 Edward II, there came by night divers robbers to the priory of Otritoune [Otterton], and there spoiled and slew the prior, whose anniversary is written in the missal of the church of Upotery.

6) Essex, 12 April 1328: Proof of age of Margaret de Bovill or Bovile, daughter and heir of John de Bovill.

John de Lysyton, knight, aged 60 years, says that the said Margaret was 16 years of age on Monday the feast of the Nativity of the Blessed Mary last, for she was born on the said feast, 5 Edward II [8 September 1311] at Lyes [?], and was baptised in the church there.  Asked how he knows this, he says that he was steward at that time of the household of the said John de Bovile, who then held the aforesaid manor of Lyes, and by the dates of the rolls of the aforesaid household he can verify the same.

Thomas Baynard, knight, aged 60 years, agrees, adding that he was then of the household of Sir Hugh de Nevile, who at that time was making a pilgrimage to St Thomas [Cantilupe] of Hereford, and was in his suite.

John de Polhey, aged 50 years, agrees, adding that, on the Monday when the said Margaret was born, he was in the hall of Lyes, and when Petronilla, mother of the said Margaret, was delivered, her midwives came into the hall, and announced the birth to him and others.

Ralph Doreward, aged 60 years, agrees, adding that on Monday next after the birth of the said Margaret, in the year aforesaid, he married Decima, his wife, and so the birth of the said Margaret often recurs to his memory.

Henry de Naylinghurst, aged 50 years, says that the said Margaret was 16 years of age on Monday, the feast of the Nativity of the Blessed Mary last, for she was born at Lyes, in the large chamber in the upper part of the hall; and this he knows because he was staying for a long time in the realm of France, and at Michaelmas before the birth of the said Margaret, he returned into England, and came to Leys on the Saturday before her birth.

7) York, 15 June 1328: Proof of age of William son and heir of William de Stoppeham.

Richard le Saucer, aged 40 years, says that the said William was born in York, in Conyngestrete, on the eve of the Invention of the Holy Cross, 35 Edward I [2 May 1307], and was baptised in the church of St Martin in Conyngestrete in the said city [here!]; and this he knows because the same King Edward died on the feast of St Thomas of Canterbury [7 July] next after the birth of the said William.

Roger le Mareschal, aged 60 years, says the like, and knows it because he was then in the retinue of Walter de Langeton, bishop of Coventry and Lichfield, and had a certain palfrey in his charge in the same week in which the said William was born.

John le Lumynour, aged 64 years, says the like, and knows it because within fifteen days of the birth of the said William he went on pilgrimage to Canterbury.

John son of Denis, aged 40 years, says the like, and knows it because, in the year in which the said William was born, the said John was apprenticed to shear cloth in the city of York.


I'm sure I'll post more of these sometime soon as they're so fab!

17 October, 2014

Signed Copies

So, Edward II: The Unconventional King is out now!  In the UK and Germany at least, people who pre-ordered it have received their copies, and in the US it's due out any day now and is already available on Kindle.  I really hope you all enjoy it.

Rather a lot of people have asked me about the possibility of me signing their copies.  I'm only too happy to!  Logistically it's going to be slightly tricky though, as of course you'll have to send me your book and I'll have to send it back, and it's going to cost rather a bit in postage!  Anyway, if you're interested in this, please do get in touch with me at edwardofcaernarfon@yahoo.com, or if you're on Facebook, send me a PM, either on my own page or on the Edward II page.  Looking forward to hearing from you!

12 October, 2014

Piers Gaveston's Illegitimate Daughter Amie

I've recently been re-reading some of the bizarre theories and wild speculations posted a few years ago on soc.genealogy.medieval about Piers Gaveston's illegitimate daughter Amie, and was inspired to write a post.  Not much is known about Amie; she cannot have been the daughter of Piers' wife and Edward II's niece Margaret de Clare as she was not, like her half-sister Joan Gaveston (born January 1312) an heiress to Margaret's third of the vast de Clare inheritance, and there is no record of Piers having been previously married before he wed Margaret in November 1307, so Amie must have been his illegitimate child.  The identity of her mother is unknown.  She was a damsel in the household of Edward III's queen Philippa of Hainault in the 1330s and married John Driby, with whom she had a daughter Alice Driby, who had (and has) descendants.  In one document of 1334, Amie is named as 'daughter (filie) of Petrus de Gaveston'.  The dates of her birth and death are unknown; Piers died in June 1312 so she cannot have been born later than nine months after that and may of course have been born much earlier, and the last known reference to her is in June 1340.  This is not necessarily when she died, though, and she may well have lived well beyond that.  Her daughter Alice Driby outlived three husbands, all of them knights, and died in 1412; Alice's eldest known child Elizabeth, was born in 1372, and she also had a son born in 1380/81 and several more children after that.

Some of the members of soc.genealogy.medieval came out with the weirdest stuff about Amie, that she was actually an illegitimate child of Piers' wife Margaret de Clare, which is massively, wildly, hilariously improbable; that she was the daughter of his father, claimed (wrongly) also to have been called Piers, and thus our Piers' half-sister.  It was even stated that a document calling Amie Piers' daughter doesn't prove a blood relation between them (??), by the same people who cheerfully indulged in flights of fantasy about Amie actually being Margaret de Clare's illegitimate daughter, though not a shred of evidence connects the two.  Fortunately there were also a few sensible members who made some eminently reasonable and knowledgeable posts about her.  See here.  And also see here for a reference to Amie on the Patent Roll of 1332, granted one of the late Roger Mortimer's manors in gratitude for her service to Queen Philippa.  When Amie joined Philippa's household, and how she came to be there, is unknown.  She is not named among the queen's five damsels in a list of the members of the king and queen's households of 24 June 1328, a few months after Philippa married Edward III (Calendar of Memoranda Rolls Michaelmas 1326-Michaelmas 1327, p. 373; the damsels were, in the original spelling, Johanna de Carru, Emmota Priour, Idonia de Clynton, Margareta de Peckebruge and Elena de Seckeville).

It's quite baffling to me that anyone would feel the need to go to such lengths to 'prove' that Amie Gaveston was not in fact Piers' daughter when a perfectly good fourteenth-century document says clearly that she was, and claim instead that she was the daughter of his wife, of his father, or of some other man called Piers Gaveston, though there is absolutely no record of anyone such.  It reminds me of the way some people are desperate to reassign Edward III's paternity to Roger Mortimer by inventing silly stories of Roger sneaking into England from Ireland in February 1312 and Isabella sneaking off to meet him on her way to York to be with her husband.  Or that Simon de Montfort was Edward I's real father.  Nonsense on stilts.  If people want to write fictional stories, great, but let's not pretend it has anything to do with history.  It would be like someone 700 years in the future seeing my birth certificate which identifies me as the daughter of Philip Warner, and solemnly declaring that there is no reason why this should mean that I was in fact Philip's daughter and the document doesn't prove that there was a family connection between us, and creating elaborate fantasies which they say are equally plausible about my true parentage, including that I was the illegitimate child of my stepmother.  Madness.

A fourteenth-century chronicle called the Polistoire wrongly says that Piers Gaveston's father was also called Piers, when we know from other sources that he was in fact called Arnaud.  It was therefore postulated on soc.genealogy.medieval that 'Amie daughter of Petrus Gaveston' was Piers' half-sister, daughter of his father of the same name.  The petition below of c. 1305 presented to Edward I by Piers and his older brother Arnaud-Guilhem de Marsan, now in the National Archives, leaves us in no doubt, however, that Piers' father (who actually died in 1302) was named Arnaud.  It begins "To our lord the king and his counsel plead Arnaud Guilhem de Marsan and Perrot de Gavastun, sons [fuiz] of Sir Arnaud de Gavaston, late knight of Gascony...".

Presumably Edward II knew of Amie's existence, though there is no documentary evidence to prove that he did.  Given the obscurity of most illegitimate children at this time period, even the king's own son Adam (died 1322) and the two sons of his wealthy and powerful cousin the earl of Lancaster, it is not in the least bit surprising that we find Amie in no record until 1332, when she was an adult.  There is no reason at all to think, as some members of soc.genealogy.medieval seem to do, that Amie's existence was deliberately hushed up or that there was some great conspiracy of silence around her or that her non-appearance on record means anything at all.  Presumably, as a document of 1334 names her as Piers Gaveston's daughter, Piers must have openly acknowledged her as such.

Contrary to what a lot of people believe, the word 'damsel' in the fourteenth century did not necessarily mean that a woman was young; it meant a woman who was not married or whose husband was not a knight.  One of Isabella of France's damsels in 1311/12 was Alice de Leygrave, who had once been Edward II's wet-nurse (in 1312 on the Close Roll she is called "the king's mother, who suckled him in his youth") and therefore was old enough to have been given responsibility for feeding the future king of England in 1284 and evidently was already a mother then herself - so clearly was some decades older than Isabella, who was born in about 1295, and by no stretch of the imagination a young woman in 1312.  Alice's daughter Cecily was also one of Isabella's damsels at this time.  Amie Gaveston being a damsel of Queen Philippa in 1332 therefore does not tell us anything about her age, it only tells us that she wasn't married to a knight.

At some point in or around 1334, Amie married John Driby.  One theory that Amie can't have been Piers' daughter goes: she was 'too old' for marriage if she was Piers' daughter and born in or before 1312, because we know that women married in their early teens or even before.  Amie's daughter Alice Driby was still giving birth in the early to mid-1380s, which implies that she can't have been born earlier than about 1340 and probably later.  Let's say that Alice was born around 1345; this would mean that Amie, child of a man who died in 1312, was in her thirties when she gave birth to her, and that Alice continued to bear children until she was forty or more.  Not impossible, of course; Eleanor of Castile and Philippa of Hainault are two famous contemporary examples of women who bore children when they were over forty.  Alice, incidentally, is the only child of Amie we know about, though Amie may of course have had others, who either died young or who didn't make it to the written record.  Let's say for example that Amie was born in about 1310, gave birth to her daughter in the 1340s, and Alice gave birth between 1372 or earlier and about 1385.  The chronology certainly works, though some people have claimed that Amie was too young to have been Piers' daughter, given the childbearing in the 1380s of her own daughter.  Amie, however, was granted a manor by Queen Philippa for the first time in January 1332, for service to the queen.  She clearly wasn't a child then.

We know that royal and noble women generally got married in their early teens or before.  We have no way of knowing at what age women down the social scale - and Amie certainly was that, being illegitimate - got married.  For all we know, getting married in their twenties was entirely normal.  It's a myth that everyone in the past always got married really young.  What was the hurry for non-noble or royal people, after all?  No vital political alliances between countries or families to seal, no inheritances to secure.  Even thinking about noblewomen, I can think of some who got married later than the norm: Edward I's daughter Eleanor (married at twenty-four) and Edward III's daughter Isabella (married at thirty-three) are classic examples, and there's also Gilbert 'the Red' de Clare's daughter Isabel, who married the widowed Maurice Berkeley in 1316 when she was fifty-four, her first and only marriage.  The dates of birth of the general population, everyone except tenants-in-chief and their heirs, are not recorded in this era.  We can't state with certainty that 'women always got married in early puberty' as a general rule that applies to everyone in England at this time, and it's certainly not reason enough to assume that Amie can't have been Piers Gaveston's daughter because we have some vague idea that she was 'too old' to get married in her twenties and have a child in her thirties.

Another theory: the 1334 fine which identifies Amie as 'daughter of Petrus Gaveston' does not mean the famous Piers Gaveston, earl of Cornwall, but some other Piers Gaveston.  Even though there is no documentary evidence of another Piers Gaveston, apparently we should assume that he, rather than the famous Piers, earl of Cornwall, fathered Amie.  The small Béarnais village of Gabaston where the family came from has a population of barely 600 even today.  It is surely stretching credulity too far to think that there was another 'Piers of Gabaston' in England in the early fourteenth century.  In the absence of any evidence that such a person existed, I'm going to stick with the most plausible explanation, that the Piers Gaveston named as Amie's father was the Piers Gaveston.

There's one amazingly creative theory about Amie, that she was in fact the illegitimate daughter of Piers' widow Margaret de Clare.  Goodness only knows why or how that one came about - seemingly from the inability of many people nowadays to believe that Piers Gaveston, beloved of Edward II, would have had extra-marital sex with a woman.  I have no idea why that's implausible.  Edward himself had pre- or extra-marital sex with a woman that resulted in his son Adam, after all.  Let's just speculate here and say that Margaret de Clare became pregnant by another man while she was married to Piers, and this resulted in Amie.  By English law, Amie would still have been Piers' daughter and legitimate, unless he took formal measures to renounce her.  If Amie had been legitimate, she would have been one of Margaret de Clare's co-heirs to the vast Clare inheritance, with Joan Gaveston and, later, Margaret's younger daughter Margaret Audley (who ultimately received the entire inheritance as Margaret's only surviving child).  It is incredibly unlikely that Margaret gave birth to an illegitimate child after Piers' death.  Margaret's brother the earl of Gloucester was killed at Bannockburn on 24 June 1314, almost exactly two years after Piers' execution, and she and her two sisters Eleanor and Elizabeth became heirs to his fortune and lands in England, Wales and Ireland.  Eleanor was already married, and Elizabeth still in Ireland (her husband the earl of Ulster's heir died in 1313).  Edward II took Margaret into his own household, where she would - certainly - have been watched closely.  She was a great heiress and a great prize, and it is basically impossible to imagine that she had enough freedom of movement to sleep with a man and become pregnant without it being noticed.  Even before the death of her brother, it is hard to imagine that she had the freedom of movement to sleep with a man and become pregnant without it being noticed.  The lives of royal and noble women were, of course, considerably more curtailed than those of royal and noble men.

Amie Gaveston was Piers' daughter, illegitimate and born to a mother whose identity we unfortunately do not know, and almost certainly never will unless new evidence comes to light.  I see no reason to think she was the daughter of anyone else.  I wish we knew more about her life and what, if any, arrangements Piers made for her upbringing.  I also wish we knew more about Edward II's son Adam.  Maybe one day...

07 October, 2014

Three Weeks Until Publication!

Just three weeks to go until Edward II: The Unconventional King is released!  Hope you're excited :-)

Some important news first: the winner of a copy of Sara Cockerill's fab Eleanor of Castile: The Shadow Queen is Bev.  Congrats, Bev!

My aim in the book is to tell the story of Edward II and his reign, and the people around him, in the most accurate, non-biased, non-judgemental way I possibly can.  I deal with all the silly myths that have been invented about him and thus defend him when I think it's necessary, but don't hold back from discussing his many flaws and mistakes.  I have no interest in presenting a whitewashed, romanticised version of Edward II, constantly jumping in to defend and minimise all his faults, and writing him as a hard-done-by victim who just couldn't help it, diddums.  Equally, I think a lot of writers have judged him unfairly harshly ("A more complete ninny than Edward II has seldom occupied a throne"; "Worthy never to have been born," for example) and have forgotten that he wasn't a bad man who set out to do evil to his subjects; he was born into a hereditary monarchy and was forced by birth to try to fill a position he was unsuited to.  He battled to reconcile his position with his unconventional nature, and to subsume Edward the man into Edward the king, and failed.  The Unconventional King is the most personal portrait of Edward II yet seen, and I really hope you enjoy it.

You can pre-order The Unconventional King from Amberley, the publisherAmazon UK; Amazon US; Book Depository; Barnes and Noble; Booktopia in Australia.  It will also be available as an e-book.

02 October, 2014

Edward of Caernarfon Created an Event: Party to Celebrate Me Founding Oriel College, Oxford

Finally, years after the first two, here's the third (and last) part of my Edward II Joins Facebook series!
Part one
Part two

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Edward of Caernarfon is in a complicated relationship with Hugh the Younger.  Comment Like Share

Hugh the Elder likes this.

Eleanor Despenser left a comment: Wut???

Edward left a comment: Never mind, El, just a crazy joke, hahaha.  Here, have some goldfinches.

Eleanor Despenser left a comment: okk.

Edward invited Hugh the Younger to try the Rule My Kingdom For Me application.

Edward sent Hugh the Younger an inappropriately huge number of other people's lands using Extravagant Royal Gifts.  Send some to your friends today!

Edward of Caernarfon sent Scotland an Invasion.

Scotland is laughing its head off.

Robert Bruce sent England an Invasion.

Edward of Caernarfon added Bridlington to the Places Where I've Fled From A Scottish Army application.

Dunbar and Berwick-on-Tweed like this.

Robert Bruce created an event at Rievaulx Abbey: Come and grab as many of the English king's abandoned possessions as you like.  Attend this event Yes No Maybe

The Westminster Chronicler asked a question: Is Edward of Caernarfon a) chicken-hearted, b) lily-livered, or c) both?

Hugh the Younger joined the group Dude, Where's My Earldom?  Join this Group

Stephen Segrave updated his Work Info to Constable of the Tower of London.

Hugh the Younger thinks the queen has waaaaaay too many lands and doesn't need them.

Isabella of France created the page I AM QUEEN, GODDAMMIT.  Like this Page

Isabella of France thinks that barons and chamberlains really should know their place.  Like Comment

Hugh the Younger edited his Interests to include Becoming ever more stinkingly rich and Sidelining the queen as much as poss.

Stephen Segrave is drunk!  And having lots of fun!  Wodge, I love you, man!  Hey, Wodge, where you going?  No no, go back to your cell, not over that wall.  Oh crap, what the hell is in this wine?  Wooooooodge!!!!!  Like Comment

Roger Mortimer created the group People Who've Escaped from the Tower of London.  Join this Group

Lady Segrave sent a Hope You Recover From Your Poisoned Wine Soon card to her husband.

Roger Mortimer sent a Yah Boo Sucks To You greeting to Edward of Caernarfon.

Edward of Caernarfon thinks he really mustn't panic over Mortimer escaping from the Tower.  It's totally fine and cool, no problem.  Not panicking at all here.  Nope.  Like  Comment 

Roger Mortimer can't get over how incredibly cool and clever he is for escaping.  Like  Comment

Roger Mortimer hopes Isabella of France has noticed how incredibly cool and clever he is.  Like  Comment

Roger Mortimer added Flanders, Picardy, Hainault, Bohemia, France and Germany to the Places He's Searched For Allies Against Edward Of Caernarfon application.

Roger Mortimer invited Charles IV King of France, Charles de Valois and 231 other friends to become fans of Roger Mortimer.  Become a fan of Roger

Roger Mortimer joined the group Unequivocally heterosexual men who love doing it with French girls.  Join this Group

Edward of Caernarfon really, really, really wants to know where Roger Mortimer is.  Still not panicking, though.  Nooooo, not at all.

Hugh the Younger recommends an article on Economist.com, How to take over your sister-in-law's Welsh lands for fun and profit.

Charles IV King of France created the page Gascony should be part of my realm, not my silly brother-in-law's.

French soldiers posted a new album: Building a new fortification at Saint-Sardos in the middle of the English king's lands in Gascony.

Charles IV King of France sent Edward of Caernarfon a declaration of war.

Edward of Caernarfon has realised he can't even find Saint-Sardos on a map.  So how the heck can I be at war over the wretched place?

Edmund of Kent updated his Work Info to Lieutenant of Gascony.

Charles de Valois added Agenais to the Places I've Conquered application.

Edmund of Kent added Agenais to the Places Where I've Been Humiliatingly Forced To Submit To My Uncle application.

Hugh the Younger left a comment: So much fail, Edmundo-baby.  Wanna come back to England and tell me why you screwed up so much?

Charles IV King of France updated his relationship status to Married to Jeanne d'Evreux.

Charles IV is hoping this one gives me a son.  Third time lucky, eh?

Philip de Valois left no comment.

Edward of Caernarfon added Cornwall and Oxfordshire to the Places I've Confiscated From The Queen For No Reason Whatsoever application.

Hugh the Younger likes this.

Charles IV invited Edward of Caernarfon to attend the event The king of England kneeling to me and paying homage the way a proper vassal should.  Attend this event Yes No Maybe

Edward of Caernarfon answered maybe.

Pope John XXII added an Answer: Perhaps the queen could travel to France to to negotiate a peace settlement before the king travels there himself?

Edward of Caernarfon likes this.

Isabella of France is now...in France!  Yippee!  So great to be back and treated like a proper royal again.  I could get used to this.  Ohhhh yes.

Isabella of France posted a new album: Having a girly night out in Pontoise with my sis-in-law Clemence.

Charles IV ordered Edward of Caernarfon to attend the event The king of England kneeling to me and paying homage the way a proper vassal should.  Attend this event Yes 

Edward of Caernarfon added Dover to the Places I've Hovered And Prevaricated In While Having Absolutely No Clue What To Do Next application.

Hugh the Younger begs leave to remind Edward that he will probably be killed if Edward leaves for France.

Edward of Windsor updated his Work Info to Duke of Aquitaine and Count of Ponthieu.

Edward of Windsor added Vincennes to the Places I've Paid Homage In application.

Edward of Caernarfon is worried that sending his son to France was totally the wrong thing to do.  But what else could I have done, under the circumstances?  Crap, crap, crap.

Edward of Windsor posted a new album: Me paying homage to Uncle Chas for my French lands.  Which are totally mine now and not my dad's, which is waaaay cool.

William Montacute likes this.

Edward of Windsor left a comment: Doesn't Uncle Chas look like a total div in that red cotehardie, though?

Isabella of France is now friends with Roger Mortimer.  Add Friend

Isabella of France became a fan of Roger Mortimer.  Become a fan of Roger

Roger Mortimer sent Isabella of France the Healing Power of a Damn Good Shag by Someone who's Amazingly Unequivocally Heterosexual and Totally Manly and Virile and Stuff.

Isabella of France created the event Finding Empowerment and Fulfilment by Shagging a Married Man.  Attend this event Yes No Maybe

Katherine Swynford and Mary Boleyn are attending this event.

Joan Mortimer thinks men are bastards.  Like Comment

Joan Mortimer joined the group My husband is a cheating toerag.  Join this Group

Isabella of France and Roger Mortimer created the page Straight Adultery Good, Gay Adultery Bad. Like this Page

Edward of Caernarfon sent Edward of Windsor a reminder that he is the king's son and heir and belongs at the king's side.

Isabella of France sent Edward of Windsor a reminder that he is the queen's son and heir and belongs at the queen's side.

Edward of Windsor: Mum...or Dad?  Dad...or Mum?  I should go back to Dad...but Mum needs me too.  This is like just soooo totally unfair.  I'm thirteen, how can I choose between my parents?  Why are they pulling this crap on me?  Not cool, guys, NOT COOL.

Isabella of France asked a question: Should I return to my husband or not?  Yes No Maybe Add an Answer

Roger Mortimer voted no.

Isabella of France joined the group Does my bum look big in my spiffy widow's garments?

Jeanne d'Evreux is holding a coronation, and Edward of Windsor needs someone to carry his train!

Roger Mortimer likes this.

Roger Belers is looking forward to a yummy meal with Henry of Lancaster.  Who are all these people waiting for me in the road?  Oh, it's the Folvilles!  'Sup, dudes?  Hey, is that a knife?

Roger Belers' account has been closed.

The Folvilles think they need to get out of England right now.

Edward of Caernarfon is in a complicated relationship with Eleanor Despenser.

Hugh the Younger left a comment: Wut???

Edward of Caernarfon left a comment: Just a little joke, beloved, hahahaha!  Nothing at all really.  Here, have some horses.

Edward of Caernarfon created an event: Party to Help Me Celebrate Founding Oriel College, Oxford, Go Me!!!!  Attend this event Yes No Maybe

700 years of scholars and students are attending.

Edward of Caernarfon posted a new photo album: My summer sailing up and down the Thames chatting to fishermen.  Some of them sing for me!  It's awesome!

Henry of Lancaster left a comment: Shouldn't you be, like, ruling the country or something, cuz?

Henry of Lancaster created the group, Dude, Where Are All My Earldoms?

Edward of Caernarfon left a comment: Look, Henners, Kenilworth and Pontefract are mine now, OK?  Just let it go.

Isabella of France and Roger Mortimer sent Edward of Caernarfon an Armed Invasion.

Edward left a comment: hahaha, I'm not at all scared cos all my faithful allies will rally to my aid...ohhh, bollocks.

Edward is trying to evade an Armed Invasion and needs some friends to lend a hand!  Edward needs help in a good ol' fashioned military campaign to help him save his kingdom!  He still needs the help of 10 more friend(s)! - via KingdomVille · Comment  Like  Click here to help

Eleanor Despenser added the Tower of London to the Places I've Been Left In Charge Of application.

Edward wrote a post in the groups Let's see how many people on FB are from WALES! and Welsh Men do it Better: Hey all, I'll be fleeing to South Wales next week.  Anyone got any, like, weapons or men-at-arms or that kind of stuff going spare?  Been asking everyone on my friends list but it seems they've all suddenly gone on holiday and forgotten to take their iPhones with them.

Isabella of France and Roger Mortimer have made dogmeat of Hugh the Elder.  Literally.

Isabella of France and Roger Mortimer created the page We're going to prove how much fairer and less tyrannical we are than Edward and the Despensers by cutting off men's heads without a trial, forcibly veiling little girls just because we hate their father and stealing the money of the chief justice of the King's Bench.  Like this page

Edward of Caernarfon and Hugh the Younger added Caerphilly to the Castles We've Sought Refuge In Then Inexplicably Left application.

The accounts of Hugh the Younger, the Earl of Arundel, Simon of Reading, Robert de Micheldever and John Daniel have been closed.

Roger Mortimer, Adam Orleton and John Stratford created the event: Sending a delegation to Kenilworth to force the king to give up his throne.  Attend this event Yes No Maybe

Edward of Caernarfon got the error message: Oops! Something went wrong. We're working on getting this fixed as soon as we can. You may be able to try being king of England again later.

Edward of Windsor updated his Work Info to King Edward III of England.

Roger Mortimer and Isabella of France updated their Work Info to Real Rulers of England.

Isabella of France created the page Does the fabulously large dower I've just awarded myself make me look fat?  Like this Page

Edward of Windsor invited Roger Mortimer, Henry of Lancaster and 847 others to attend his Coronation at Westminster Abbey.  Attend this event Yes No Maybe

Edward of Caernarfon added Berkeley Castle to the Places I've Been Imprisoned In application.

Stephen and Thomas Dunheved sent Armed Attacks to Berkeley Castle.

Rhys ap Gruffydd and Donald of Mar like this.

Edward of Caernarfon: I'm freeeeeeee again, oh joy!  Oh no, wait, I'm not.  Sigh.

Rhys ap Gruffydd added Scotland to the Places I've Fled To application.

Roger Mortimer added Thomas Berkeley, John Maltravers, William Ockley and Thomas Gurney to the secret group Let's Solve the Problem of Edward of Caernarfon.

Roger Mortimer wrote a post: Now remember what we talked about via PM, guys.  It's important that we do this right.  And keep schtum, for heaven's sake.

Edward III, Isabella of France, Roger Mortimer and the entire English nobility and episcopate added St Peter's Abbey, Gloucester to the Places We've Attended A King's Funeral application.

Edmund of Kent posted a new album: My half-bro's funeral.  So sad, man.  So sad.  Hang on a sec though, did anyone actually see the body?  Anyone?  Anyone??

Roger Mortimer left a comment: Hmmm yes, very sad.  My new black tunic looked spiffy though, don't you think?  And I definitely saw the dead body, and he was completely dead, oh yes, as dead as you can get.  But he was totally not murdered in any way.

Edward III is now friends with Philippa of Hainault.

Philippa of Hainault updated her Work Info to Queen of England.

Count William III of Hainault likes this.

Isabella of France updated her Work Info to Dowager But Real Queen of England, the one with all the lands and income and power, and don't you forget it, my girl.

Roger Mortimer likes this.

Philip de Valois updated his Work Info to King of France.

Edward III left a comment: Are you freaking kidding me?  How come YOU get it and not me?

Philip VI King of France left a comment: Bwhahahaha, bad luck, cuz!

Jeanne of Navarre left a comment: Are you both freaking kidding me?  France should be mine!

Philip VI left a comment: here, girl, here's Navarre to keep you quiet.

Edward III created the group 1,000,000 Strong Against Roger Mortimer.

Henry of Lancaster and William Montacute joined this group.

Isabella of France left a comment: Young man, you are SO grounded.

Edward III left a comment: Um, helloooo?  Who's king here?  I can do what I like.

Isabella: Oh really?  I am queen, you ungrateful little sod.  After all Uncle Rog and I have done for you!

Isabella of France thinks that this 20,000 pounds from Robert Bruce is going to buy an awful lot of shoes, gowns and jewels.  Yay, shopping!

Edward III left a comment: Errr, Mum, you do know that money's for my treasury, don't you?  Bruce didn't give it to you personally.  And the 80,000 pounds my dad left - you haven't let Mortimer spend it on re-building Ludlow Castle and holding jousting tournaments, have you?  Muuuuuuum!

Isabella of France sent Roger Mortimer an earldom of March using Extravagant Royal Favourite Gifts.  Send one to your royal favourite today!

Henry of Lancaster and the rest of the English nobility left a comment: Are you freaking KIDDING us?

Henry of Lancaster sent an Armed Rebellion to Isabella of France and Roger Mortimer.

Roger Mortimer sent Total Devastation to Leicestershire.

Isabella of France posted a new album: Uncle Henry kneeling in the mud and pretending he actually enjoys submitting to me and Le Manly Wodge.  Hehehehe.

Roger Mortimer created the group How to get lots of girls to fancy you by being amazingly unbelievably rich and powerful and heterosexual.

Isabella of France and Roger Mortimer have accepted an invitation to a double wedding in Ludlow.

Isabella of France left a comment: Which of your daughters is it this time, Rog?

Roger Mortimer replied:  Not sure, tbh.  Possibly Catherine and Agnes?  Or Beatrice and, ummmm, what's the second youngest one called again?

Philippa of Hainault created a new event: My coronation as queen of England.  Finally!  I am nearly six months pregnant with the heir to the kingdom, ya know.  Late, much?  Bloody Isabella.

Henry of Lancaster joined the campaign Make Facebook Available in Braille.

Edmund of Kent created the group We believe Edward of Caernarfon is still alive and we're going to do something about it.

Archbishop of York, Donald of Mar, Bishop of London, Mayor of London, Lord Beaumont, Rhys ap Gruffydd and 187 others joined the group We believe Edward of Caernarfon is still alive and we're going to do something about it.

Roger Mortimer left a comment: Hahahahaha, as if! You're stoooopid, Edmund, and just to prove that Edward is actually dead I'm going to have you beheaded, using a law no-one's ever heard of that makes you guilty of treason for trying to free a dead man from non-existent captivity.

Edmund left a comment: He's at Corfe Castle, I know it, you know it, the whole bloody country knows it.  Your rubbish regime is so over, Mortimer.

Edmund of Kent added Temporary Scaffold in Winchester to the Places He's Hung Around All Day application.

The executioner in Winchester thinks he'd better leg it, sharpish.

A latrine-cleaner of Winchester updated his Work Info under duress to Executioner of Royal Earls.

Edmund of Kent updated his Work Info to Victim of Judicial Murder.

Roger Mortimer thinks that having people beheaded and taking their lands is awesome.

Geoffrey Mortimer left a comment: You're the king of fools, Dad.  Like, seriously.

Edward III: We have a baby boy!!!!!  He rocks!  Hmmm, what do you think me and Philippa should call him?  I'm thinking Edward has a nice ring to it.  Edward of Woodstock, ohhhh yes.

The people of Limoges left a comment: WHERE'S THE DISLIKE BUTTON???!!!

Philippa of Hainault added 91 photos to the album Edward of Woodstock is the cuuuuuutest baby ever.

Edward III likes this.

William Montacute, William Clinton, Robert Ufford and nineteen other friends joined the secret group Roger Mortimer Is Soooo Finished.

William Montacute wrote a post: This tunnel under Nottingham Castle could be damned useful.  Meet you there in a couple of hours, lads!

Roger Mortimer wrote a post on Isabella's Wall: We're lucky our chambers at Nottingham Castle are so secure, while we plot how to continue to rule the country and sideline your son.  Wait, did you hear something?

Henry Bishop of Lincoln added A Latrine Shaft to the Places He's Hurriedly Thrown Himself Down application.

Sir Hugh Turplington's account has been closed.

Henry of Lancaster is throwing his hat in the air with joy.

Roger Mortimer added A Dark Cell At The Tower and Tyburn Gallows to the Places He's Been application.

Roger Mortimer's account has been closed.

Isabella of France is hysterical.

Edward III has discovered he's bankrupt.  Dammit, I KNEW my mum was spending all that dosh!

Edward III sent William Montacute a PM: Will, we have GOT to find out where my dad is. Can't have him wandering around Europe.  Anyone could find him and threaten me with his restoration.  Damn it, FIND him.  Don't harm him but find him!!!!

Edward of Caernarfon is sitting in an Italian monastery on a hill, sipping wine and admiring the view. Ah, this is the life.  Should have retired here years ago.

Edward of Caernaforn thinks he's had the last laugh.